Barons de St. Hippolyte (or Saint-Hippolite)

Approaching the village of St. Hippolyte de Caton (Gard department in the Languedoc-Roussillon) with the old chateau of the de Montolieu family ahead (partially obscured by trees).

My family notes state:

'The Montolieu's are of a very ancient and noble French family who were settled in Languedoc at the beginning of the twelfth century, when Guillaume de Montolieu owned the large territories around Marseilles known as the Val de Montolieu, but which, in the next generation was called Val de Giraud, after his son Giraud de Montolieu who had cultivated these lands.

The family traces its descent from this Guillaume in a direct line through fifteen successive generations* to the middle of the seventeenth century during which time they filled high and important offices in the military and diplomatic services of their country including that of General of the galleys to Ildefonso King of Navarre (1182) [actually Alphonso II, King of Aragon]. Envoy to Beatrice Countess of Provence (1298). Ambassador to Charles le Bel and the Queen of Naples (1323-43), and Ambassador to the Pope in 1367.

In 1557 Guillaume de Montolieu acquired the estates and seignorial rights of St. Hippolite from which fief they derived the title of Baron.

At an heraldic visitation in 1664, four brothers, Pierre, Louis, Jacques and Aymon de Montolieu, respectively seigneurs of St. Hippolite de la Coste, de Montredon, and de Montussarges, were by decree of sovereignty inscribed in the roll of the "nobles of the Province of Languedoc".

After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, David de Montolieu Baron and seigneur St. Hippolite, emigrated to Holland, took service under the Prince of Orange, accompanied him to England and in 1690 fought under King William of the Boyne (should this read "fought under King William at the battle of the Boyne"?). He attained the rank of General in the English army, and died a naturalised English subject at the age of 93.'

*1. Guillaume I de Montolieu of Marseille had issue,
2. Giraud de Montolieu (living 1209) m Beatrix de Ricaud and had issue
3. Guillaume II de Montolieu m Blacasse de Blacas and had issue,
4. Guillaume III de Montolieu m Marie d'Anselme and had issue,
5. Guillaume IV de Montolieu m Alasacie de Castellane de Galbert and had issue,
6. Blaqueira I de Montolieu (founder of the St. Hippolyte branch) m Beatrix de Jerusalem and had issue,
7. Blaqueira II de Montolieu m Gassole de Gaufridi de Trets and had issue,
8. Blaqueira III de Montolieu m Douce de Conchis and had issue,
9. Arnaud de Montolieu m Sibylle de Pelet and had issue,
10. Thomas de Montolieu m 1427 Clemence de Brignon and had issue,
11. Jean de Montolieu m 1463 Marguerite [?] and had issue,
12. Jaques de Montolieu m 1488 Antoinette de Delom and had issue,
13. Guillaume V de Montolieu m 1541 Antoinette de Vergeze and had issue,
14. Antoine de Montolieu m 1582 Suzanne Dupui or Dupuy and had issue,
15. Claude de Montolieu m 1622 or 1624 Catherine de Saurin and had issue,
16. Pierre de Montolieu m 1660 Jeanne de Froment and had issue David who came to England in 1688 (see below)

The main branch of the family inter-married on several occasions with the House of Grimaldi, now Princes of Monaco. See Moréri, Louis, 'Le grand Dictionaire historique, ou le mélange curieux de l'histoire sacrée et profane', vol.7, p. 756. Louis de Montolieu (1648-1713), of the Marseille branch, was created a Marquis by Louis XIV.

Louis de Montolieu (1648-1713), Marquis of Montolieu, Knight of the Order of St. Louis.

The founder of the St. Hippolyte branch, Blaqueria de Montolieu, married Beatrix of Jerusalem, apparently (according to two internet sites, but I have found no proof of this) daughter of Guy de Lusignan (1260-1302), father of Hugh IV, King of Cyprus, and Eschive D'Ibelin, Lady of Beirut.

During the Crusades the family appears to have held the castle of Chastel Rouge as vassals of the Count of Tripoli until 1177 (map here).

In October 1177 the castle was granted to the Order of St. John - 'Raimundus, comes Tripolitanus, cum uxore Eschiva, Hospitali et magistro Rogerio Castrum Rubrum nec non casale alias vocatum Turrem Bertranii Milonis... donat.' Reinhold Rohricht, 'Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani', Innsbruck, 1893, page 146, no. 549. 'Cartulary of the Hospitallers of Saint John of Jerusalem', Book I, pp. 353-354, no. 519.

In November 1178 Raymond de Montolif and his brother were paid 400 bezants as compensation for loss of their rights in Chastel Rouge - 'Raymundus de Montolif et frater ejus renuntiant omnia jura quae habent in Castellum Rubrum quae possederant et Raymundus, comes Tripolitanus, Hospitali concesserat ex cambio CCCC bisantiorum [400 bezants].', 'Cartulary of the Hospitallers of Saint John of Jerusalem', Book I, pp. 371-372, no. 549; Reinhold Rohricht, 'Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani', Innsbruck, 1893, Add., p. 35, no. 562a.

March 1181 and June 1184 - Gerard, brother of Raymond de Montolif appears to have been Viscount of Tripoli. (Du Cange, 'Les familles d’Outre-mer', ed Rey, 1869, p. 495).

Seal of Girard Montolif, Viscount of Tripoli.

'+ S. GIRARDI. VICECOMITIS Ecu portant trois jumelles [barrulets i.e. three pairs of narrow bars] (1) Rev. + CIVITAS TRIPOLIS La cité de Tripoli sous la forme d'une porte de ville crénelée, flanquée de deux tours surmontées chacune d'une guette à coupole hémisphérique. Un autre exemplaire, publié par Paoli et reproduit par lui sous le numéro 40 de sa planche IV, était appendu, du temps de cet auteur, à un document en date du mois de mars 1181 ou du mois de juin 1184 (2) conservé aux Archives de Malte. Cet exemplaire a aujourd'hui disparu. Un troisième exemplaire se trouve décrit dans un document en date de 1182, publié dans G. Muller, Docum. sulle relaz. delle citta toscane collection Oriente, etc., p. 24. 1. Du Cange (Familles d'Outre-mer, édition E. G. Rey, p. 557) dit que les armes des Montolif étaient « un escu chargé d'un lyon rampant, ayant pour cimier un dragon ». Voyez le sceau de Pierre de Montolif, bouteiller de Chypre. 2. Codice diplomatique, t. I, pages 71 et 76. Paoli a négligé de nous dire auquel de ces deux documents, dans chacun desquels figure le vicomte Girard, était appendu ce sceau qu'il a reproduit sous le numéro 40.' (from here).

*Note the similarity between the three pairs of barrulets used by Girard Montolif, Viscount of Tripoli, and the barry (3 thick bars) used by the Montolieu family of Marseilles. It is quite possible that the former developed into the latter i.e. that the two narrow bars were merged into one thick bar (possibly as a form of differencing by a junior branch of the family, although one would normally expect thick bars to become two narrow bars - older arms generally being the simplest).

Barry of six, or and azure compared to barrulets.

There appears to have been a branch of the family in Cyprus. See Du Cange, 'Les familles d’Outre-mer', ed Rey, 1869, pp 557-564 which states that the family seem to have been indifferently known as Montolif, Montolieu, de Monte Olivarum, de Monte Olivo, Montolivo or de Mont Oliu, being the name of a small village in the Languedoc where the family came from, being established since the 12th century in Marseille and the lower Languedoc. Members of the Montolieu family were variously marshal, bailiff, butler, chamberlain, ambassador and auditor of the Kingdom of Cyprus, Governor of Famagusta, Baron of The Kingdom of Cyprus and later Viscount of Nicosia (Francois de Montolif in 1456). From these references the family seem to have been present in Cyprus from about 1300 (possibly following the fall of Acre in 1291) until the end of the Lusignan rule of Cyprus in the late 1400s, roughly 200 years.

One Simon de Montolipho, son of Thomas and one of the knights of Amaury, the titular prince of Tyr (brother of Henry II king of Cyprus), murdered Amaury over a question of debt, 3 June 1310, and cut off his right hand as a souvenir (see Florio Bustron, 'Chronique de l’isle de Chypre', ed. R de Mas Latrie, 1884, pp 196-8).

Chastel Rouge, County of Tripoli (now Syria).

Plan of Chastel Rouge.

Melville Henry Massue, Marquis de Ruvigny, 'The Nobilities of Europe', Melville & Co., London, 1910, Elibron Classics re-print, p. 350 states:

'DE MONTOLIEU. David de Montolieu, SEIGNEUR DE ST. HIPPOLYTE in France, a French Protestant refugee, came to England with William, Prince of Orange, in 1688, and entered the army, becoming a Lieut.-General. For his services with the allies in Piedmont he was, by letters patent dated at Vienna 14 Feb. 1706, cr. by the Emperor Joseph I, a BARON OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE as BARON OF ST. HIPPOLYTE (FREIHERR VON ST. HIPPOLYTE), with rem. to his descendants male and female for ever. His male issue became extinct on the death s.p.m.s [without male issue] of his grandson, Lewis (Montolieu), 3rd Baron de St. Hippolyte, 20 May 1817. The heir of line of the Barons de St. Hippolyte [H. R. E.] is his great grandda. Constance Maria (née Hammersley)*, widow of Lieut.-Col. Henry Edward Stopford, and not Lord Elibank, as is often stated.'

*On her death in 1930, apparently without issue, the Barony of St. Hippolyte appears to have passed (in accordance with the semi-Salic law of succession, as applied to the imperial title itself in the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713) to the heirs of Julia Fanny (above), younger daughter of Louis de Montolieu (1761-1853), 3rd Baron of St. Hippolyte, who married, firstly, William Wibraham, Capt. R. N., and, secondly, Lt-Gen. Sir Henry Frederick Bouverie (1783-1852), GCB, GCMG, Governor of Malta.

By her first husband, William Wilbraham, Julia had issue, Emily Anna Wilbraham (d 1862) and Julia Maria Wilbraham (1891-1924).

Emily Anna Wilbraham married in 1843 Admiral Robert Fanshawe Stopford (1811-1891) and had issue (see also http://thepeerage.com/p3779.htm#i37786) Mary Louisa Stopford, Eleanor Anna Stopford (d 3 Sep 1943), Vice-Admiral Robert Wilbraham Stopford (b 24 Jun 1844, d. 9 Jun 1911), Colonel Arthur Bouverie Stopford (b 21 Oct 1845, d 10 Jun 1902), William Edward Stopford (b about 1846-1852, d 29 Apr 1928), Vice-Admiral Frederick George Stopford (b 10 May 1852, d 18 Jan 1928) and Francis James Stopford (b 6 Jul 1857, d 25 Aug 1928).

Julia Maria Wilbraham married in Malta in 1840 Edward Stopford (1809-1905), Capt. R.N. and had issue Lt.Col. Henry Edward Stopford (1841-1895), who m 1882 Constance Maria Hammersley (1856-1930) but apparenlty dsp (see above), Edith Louisa Stopford (1843-1936), who m 1868 Admiral Sir William Robert Kennedy, G.C.B. (and had issue Alice Emily Kennedy (1870-1939), who m 1911 George Walter Stopford (1870-1959)) and Grosvenor Stopford (1845-1875), Cmdr., R.N., who m 1874 Sara Palmer.

By her second husband, Lt-Gen. Sir Henry Frederick Bouverie (1783-1852), Julia had issue Henry (dsp 1854), Capt. Coldstream Guards, who was killed at the Battle of Inkerman, and Henrietta (d 1929), who m 1851 Hugh Montolieu Hammersley (1825-1896), 5th Baron of St. Hippolyte (see above).

Titles in the Holy Roman Empire were descendible to men and women. What this meant was that all the sons of a baron would inherit the title of 'baron' at birth and all the daughters would inherit the title of 'baroness' at birth. However, the main title of 'Baron of x' would pass to the eldest son only, in this case, say, 'Henry de Montolieu, Baron of St. Hippolyte'; all the other sons would be 'Baron [First name] [Last name]', in this case, say, 'Baron Henry de Montolieu', and all the daughters of would be 'Baroness [First name] [Last name]', in this case, say, 'Baroness Marie de Montolieu'. The sons of a 'Baron [First name] [Last name]' would also be 'Baron [First name] [Last name] and his daughters would be 'Baroness [First name] [Last name]'. However, neither the sons or daughters of a 'Baroness [First name] [Last name]' would inherit a title.

One potential exception to this rule that the title 'Baron of x' could not pass to or through a woman was the semi-Salic law of succession (as applied to the imperial title itself in the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713), under which the title would pass to a daughter (and through her to her heirs) if there were no males heirs.

One other exception to this rule would be where there was a special remainder. In the case of the Barony of St. Hippolyte, Melville Henry Massue, Marquis de Ruvigny, 'The Nobilities of Europe', Melville & Co., London, 1910, Elibron Classics re-print, p. 350 states that the barony was granted 'with rem. to his descendants male and female for ever'. My understanding is that the words 'with remainder to' mean that the title of Baroness of St. Hippolyte can pass to women because the grant is saying 'The title of Baron of St. Hippolyte (as opposed to the mere rank of baron or baroness) is being granted with remainder to men and remainder to women'. 'Remainder to men' clearly means that the title of Baron of St. Hippolyte (which is what was being granted) can pass to a man, so 'remainder to women' can only mean that the title can pass to a woman. Why would the same words have a different meaning when applied to a woman as opposed to a man? But only reference to the original grant* would establish whether the title was granted 'with remainder to' in this sense, bearing in mind that Ruvigny would have been aware of the rules of descent of titles in the Holy Roman Empire and would not, I believe, have used the words 'with remainder to' if this had not been the case - unless his understanding of the words was different. As I understand it the words 'with remainder to' refer to who 'remains' to succeed to the title on the death of a holder of the title; if a woman can 'remain' then she can inherit the title. This is certainly what these words mean in an English context.

*Later note: The original grant of 14/2/1706 describes itself as a confirmation of nobility (as opposed to a grant of nobility). It would appear therefore that the document confirms the nobility status that the recipients previously had in France (given that they had no prior status of any kind in Austria). It would appear that since the family held baronial status in France (through ownership of the St. Hippolyte estate as stated above) what was confirmed to them in Austria was that baronial status and that this is the reason that the two grantees were subsequently described as barons. The documents supplied to me by the Austrian State Archive appear to be drafts (i.e. not the final documents). These drafts include a picture of the coat of arms which includes a coronet with seven pearls (see below); that is, the coronet of a 'Freiherr' (Baron). This would seem to establish that what was actually granted was a confirmation of baronial status (Baron of St. Hippolyte) already held in France.

Left: The coronet of a freiherr (i.e. baron) as shown in the draft of the original grant of 14/2/1706. Right: The coronet of a freiherr as shown on Wikipedia. The coronet of the lower nobility had five pearls as opposed to seven.

The Holy Roman Empire came to an end in 1806 but, as I understand it (see here), titles of the Holy Roman Empire were 're-recognised' at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Titles were abolished in Austria in 1919 but while the government of Austria could change the domestic law of Austria it could not unilaterally alter the terms of the Congress of Vienna, which was an international treaty. Thus the domestic law of Austria had no effect on the recognition of titles of the Holy Roman Empire in other countries under the terms of the Congress of Vienna, unless and until that treaty was amended with the agreement of all the parties.

Lart, Charles E., 'Huguenot Pedigrees', Vol. 1, Baltimore, MD, USA, Clearfield Co., 1989, p. 63 states

'MONTOLIEU DE SAINT-HIPPOLITE

Arms: Fascé d'or et d'azur de 6 p.p. [Barry of gold and blue - presumably six bars, 3 gold, 3 blue]

Alias: Azure, a fleur de lis or, between 3 crescents in chief, and as many mulIets in base, argent: supporters 2 eagles regardant, wings extended and invected ppr. Motto: "Deo et principi," and" Per ardua surge."

I. GuilIaume Montolieu, éc., sgr. de Saint-Hippolite et de Caton; married, I Jan. 1541, Dlle. Antoine de Vergèze, and had 4 sons and a daur., Isabeau : (a) Jacques, killed at St. Denis in 1567; (b) François, killed at Moncontour in 1569, with his brother (c) Hippolite; (d) Antoine, who succeeds, II. GuilIaume Montolieu was killed at Dreux in 1562.

II. Antoine MontoIieu, sgr. de St. Hippolite et de Caton, was at the siege of Rouen in 1592 and d. in 1615. He married, 21 Jan. 1582, Dlle. Susanne Dupuy, daur. of Bernardin Dupuy, sgr. de Montmoirac, and of Isabeau de Valabrez, and left 5 sons: (a) Jean, kilIed at MontpelIier in 1622; (h) Antoine, kiIIed in Spain; (c) Claude, who succeeds, III.; (d) David,(A); (e) Pierre; (f) Jacques.

III. Claude Montolieu, sgr. de St. Hippolite, captain in the Regiment of Calvisson in 1636, married in 1622 Dlle. Catherine de Saurin, daur. of Pierre de Saurin, sgr. de Pomaret, and of Marthe de La Mare, and had: (a) Pierre, who succeeds, IV.; (b) Louis, sgr. de La Coste, in the Regiment d'Auvergne, killed at Nevers; (c) Jacques, sgr. de Montredon (Is this Château Mont-Redon - see here also?), killed in a duel; (d) Aymar, sgr. de Montessargues (Is this Montezargues - see here also - where possibly the best rosé in France is produced?), Iieut-colonel of the Regiment de Limousin, who abjured. Maintained his noblesse, 24 Jan. 1669.

IV. Pierre Montolieu, sgr. de Saint-Hippolite, married 11 Feb. 1661, DIle. Jeanne de Froment, daur. of Nicolas de Froment, sgr. de St. Jean de Ceissargues, and of Marie du Roure, and left: (a) Claude, who emigrated to HolIand at the Revocation; (b) Theophile, who succeeds in the main line; (c) Jacques, killed at Luxembourg; (d) Louis, a major-general in the Prussian army; (e) David, author of the English Branch, V.(A); (f) Aymar, "Conseiller du Cour" in Prussia; (g) Marguerite, d. young.

David de Montolieu (1668-1761), Baron of St. Hippolyte (National Army Museum).

Marie Molinier (1684-1777), Baroness of St. Hippolyte, wife of David de Montolieu (1668-1761), Baron of St. Hippolyte.

V. David Montolieu,(B) sgr. de St. Hippolite, cr. a Baron of the Holy Roman Empire by the Emperor Joseph in 1706 for his services in Piedmont against France. Came to England in 1688 with the Prince of Orange and was a captain in the French regiment of La Meloniere. He became a brig.-general in 1727, major-general in 1735, lieut.-general 1739, general in 1761. One of the original 39 directors of the French Hospital in 1718. He married, 26 Ap. 1714, Marie Molinier, who was bapt. at Nismes, 30 Sept. 1684, daur. of Antoine Molinier, a merchant of Cournonterral and of Allix Baudoin, of a Protestant family of Nismes. The marriage took place at- St. Martin Orgars French church, London. Marie Molinier d. in 1777. David Montolieu left by her: (a) Elizabeth, bapt. at St. Martin Orgars, 24 Feb. 1714/15; (b) Susanne Marie, bapt. at St. Martin Orgars, 11 Dec. 1717 : her godmother was Suzanne de Saint-Hippolite, probably a sister of David Montolieu; (c) Louis Charles, who succeeds, VI. David Montolieu d., aged 93, at his house in Surrey and was buried at Wandsworth, June 1761.

VI. Louis Charles Montolieu, sgr. de St. Hippolite, 2nd Baron, bapt. at St. Martin Orgars, 18 May 1719, was lieut. colonel in the 2nd Troop of H. Guards, and a director of the French Hospital in 1759. He married, 26 July 1750, Elizabeth Leheup, of the parish of St. James's, Westminster, daur. of Peter Leheup,(c) of Morden, and of Clara, daur. of William Lowndes, of Winslow and Chesham, Bucks. The marriage took place at the French church of Spring Garden. (Lic. Archbishop of Canterbury.) He left by her 5 sons and 4 daurs. : (a) Peter James, b. 6 Ap. 1753, d. young; (h) Charles, b. 1 Jan. 1758, d. young; (c) David, b. 20 Jan. 1759; (d) Louis, b. 15 Dec. 1761, who succeeds, VII.; (e) Thomas, b. 25 Nov. 1767, d. 30 July 1805 : he married Anne. . . . (?) (wilI P.C.C. 655, Nelson); (f) Mary Clara, b. 3 July 1751, d. 19 Jan. 1802: married 20 Ap. 1776, Alexander, 7th Baron Elibank, her cousin-german; (g) Charlotte Gabrielle, b. 19 July 1754; married, 27 May 1783, Wriothesley Digby, of Meriden Hall, Warwick; (h) Anne, b. 27 March 1756, married at St. George's, Hanover Square, 16 Dec. 1780, Sir James Bland Burges (afterwards Lamb); (i) Elizabeth, b. 15 Oct. 1759, married at Darnhill, 19 Aug. 1792, James, 8th Baron Cranstoun: d.s.p.

Louis de Montolieu (1761-1853), 3rd Baron of St. Hippolyte (Holy Roman Empire), painted in 1806. His arms were 'Azure, a fleur de lys or between three crescents in chief and as many mullets (stars) in base, argent. Supporters: two eagles regardant, wings extended and invected proper. Motto: 'Deo et principi' and 'Per ardua surge'. Painting at the French Hospital, Rochester, Kent (The first baron was one of the founding directors in 1714 and the second baron was a director in 1759). The text reads 'Louis de Montolieu son of Colonel Louis Charles born 1761'.

VII. Louis Montolieu de St. Hippolite, F.S.A., entered at Oxford 1779. A partner in Hammersley's Bank, Pall Mall. Married at St. George's, Hanover Square, 3 March 1786, Maria Henrietta*, daur. of James Modyford Heywood** [d 1798], of Maristow, Devon, d. 20 May 1817. He had a son, Charles, who died a student at Oxford in 1809, and two daurs., Maria Georgina, who married in 1822 Hugh Hammersley of Pall Mall, and Julia Fanny, who married, 1st, William Wilbraham, capt. R.N., and, 2nd, Sir Henry Bouverie, G.C.B., Governor of Malta.

*Maria Henrietta Montolieu was the author of 'The Enchanted Plants', 'The Festival of the Rose' and 'The Gardens'. Her husband was the first cousin once removed of the authoress, Isabelle de Montolieu (1751-1832), who wrote 'Caroline de Lichtfield' (which may have influenced Jane Austen's 'Sense and Sensibility') and translated 'The Swiss Family Robinson' (see here also), who married Louis de Montolieu of the Chateau d'Etoy, son of Louis de Montolieu, brother of David de Montolieu,1st Baron of St. Hippolyte (above and below).
**
See his portrait by Gainsborough. On his death in 1798 his four daughters (Sophia, Emma, Maria and Fanny) sold the estates of Maristow, Bickleigh, Buckland Monachorum, Walkhampton and Shaugh Prior to Sir Manasseh Messeh Lopes.

James Modyford Heywood (d 1798) by Thomas Gainsborough

Maristow House, nr. Roborough, Devon, former seat of the Heywood family.

NOTES.

(A) La Roque and Haag, who follows him, are clearly wrong in assigning David, son of Antoine Montolieu, as the author of the English Branch. The naturalisation act of David Montholieu de St. Hippolite describes him as son of Peter by Jone (Jeane) his wife, b. at St. Hipolitte in Languedoc, May 25 1702.

(B) A portrait exists of General David Montolieu, Baron de St. Hippolite (1669-1761), and one of his wife, Marie Molinier, Baronne Montolieu (1684-1777). She was god-mother, 10 May 1772, to Marie Marguerite de Claris de Florian at the French church of Le Carre and Berwick Street, "Mme. Marie Molinse (sic) fern. de Mr. Saintipolythe." James Molinier, her brother, was naturalised 4 May 1699. He was in the 2nd Troop of Guards and had served 8 months. His father, Anthony M., stated to have died in the King's service and been all through the war in the troop. Charles, another brother, b. at Groningen, in Friesland.

(C) The Le Heup family, of St. Lo, was widely spread. A branch settled in Jersey and a refugee of the name went to Limerick, whence it removed to London, where the name is found in the Registers of La Patente French Church.
Thomas Le Heup was made a Denizen, 22 June 1694.
'

Saint-Hippolyte, about 6 miles south-east of Alès (Gard department in the Languedoc-Roussillon).

The Chateau de Saint-Hippolyte-de-Caton, former home of the de Montolieu family (now called the Chateau de La Condamine).

Agnew, Rev. David, 'Protestant exiles from France in the reign of Louis XIV', Reeves & Turner, London, 1871, 2nd ed., vol. II, p. 173, states:

NB This article seems to completely overlook the 3rd Baron and his elder daughter, Maria, but does mention his younger daughter, Julia (but, incorrectly, as a daughter of the 2nd Baron).

'The family of Montolieu de Saint-Hippolite was a branch of the Barons de Montolieu of Marseilles (see Moréri*). Illustrious as it was in the world, it is more distinguished as having contributed many soldiers and martyrs to the Huguenot cause. Guillaume de Montolieu, Seigneur de Saint-Hippolite was killed at the Battle of Dreux in 1562. Of his four sons, three were killed in action, Jacques at St Denis in 1567, and Francois and Hippolite at Moncontour in 1569. Antoine was severely wounded at the siege of Rouen in 1592, but lived till 1615. The latter married Susanne Dupuy, and was the father of Jean, killed at the siege of Montpellier in 1622, and of Claude, who married Catherine de Saurin, whose son Pierre, the father of the refugees, was married to Jeanne de Froment, daughter of Nicolas de Froment and Marie Du Roure. The refugees were Louis (who retired to Brandenburg), and David, Sieur de Saint-Hippolite, who came to England with the Prince of Orange. David Montolieu, who was born in 1668, was in several actions in Flanders under King William III. In the reign of Queen Anne he was ordered to Piedmont, where he assisted in the intrepid and brilliant defence of Verrue against the French besiegers, by which the Duke of Savoy and Marshal Staremberg obtained such renown. Verrue fell on the 9th April 1705, "with great decency and with immortal honour to those brave men who had defended it almost six months;" so writes the Right Hon. Richard Hill (page 529). Next came the siege of Chivas, which little fortress held out till the 29th July, having been besieged for six weeks, when it surrendered "with great honour." This expenditure of time saved Turin. I find the name of Monsieur de Saint-Hippolite, in print, associated with the Waldenses, whom the French had unsuccessfully solicited to be neutral. On the 20th June 1704, the French made a successful raid into the valleys of St Martin and St Germans. The inhabitants of the latter valley however rallied, Monsieur de Saint-Hippolite taking the command on the 30th June, and on the next clay defeating the French at Angrogna, and expelling them from all the valleys except St Martin, which capitulated. Altogether his valour and good conduct were conspicuous, and Monsieur Staremberg recommended him to the Emperor Joseph. The Emperor satisfied himself of the antiquity and nobility of the family of the Sieur de Saint-Hippolite, and gave him a patent of nobility as Baron of Saint-Hippolite, in the German Empire, dated at Vienna, 14th Feb. 1706.

[*Moréri, Louis, 'Le grand Dictionaire historique, ou le mélange curieux de l'histoire sacrée et profane', vol.7, p. 756]

Two of his commissions from the Duke of Savoy (Vittorio Amedeo) lie before me. The first dated at Turin, 3rd May 1709, states that the "Sr. David Montolieu di St. Ippolite," had been Lieutenant-Colonel in the Regiment of Meyrol and Adjutant-General of the camp near his Royal Highness person, and was now promoted to the rank of Colonel. The second dated at Nizza 30th Nov. 1713, signed by the same Prince as King of Sicily, commends the conduct of the Sgr. David Montolieu di St. Hippolite as Adjutant-General and Colonel of infantry during the late war, specifying his services at the sieges of Verrua, Cirasso, and Torino, and concludes by promoting him to the rank of Generate di Battalia. [I may here observe that his title is variously spelt; in English legal documents it is Saint-Hippolite; he himself, in military phonographic style, made one word of it, "Saintipolite."]

Of the same year, though of earlier date, is Mr Hill’s certificate, which (I believe) was never printed before:

'This is to certifye that in the year 1703 I was comanded by the Queen to carry into Piedmont as many French protestant officers as I could find in Hollande or in Germany, because at that time the enemyes had seazed and made prisoners allmost all ye D. of Savoye's troops.

In obedience to these comands I carried allmost a 100 good officers into the service of his R.H. upon the promises and assurances wch I gave them by her Majtys. expres comands, signifiyed to me by a Secretaire of State, that all ye services wch should he performed by them dureing ye war in Piedmont should be accounted for to them by ye Queen at ye time of a peace, as if they had been performed more imediately to her majesty in her own troops.

Amongst these officers Monsr. David de Montolieu de St Hippolyte had ye honour and good fortune to distinguish himself very much, being made adjutant Generall at the first, by his dilligence and activity, by his courage and capacity, he acquired the esteem and confidence of his R.H. who employed and trusted him in a particular manner dureing ye famous seiges of Verrue, Chivas, and Turin in both which Monsr. de St Hippolite acquired a great and a just reputation.

To the truth of this I have set my hand and seal at London 7bre 5th 1713.

RICHD. HILL.' (Seal)

The gallant Baron spent the rest of his life in England, where (says the Scots Magazine] "he with tranquillity attained a great age under the shade of the laurels he gathered in his youth." It was, however, at the age of 45 that he left Piedmont, and came back among us, being recognised as a colonel in our army. He had, after the Peace of Ryswick, what is called "a pension," probably a lieutenant-colonel’s half-pay, and which was continued, as appears from a letter to Mr Hill from Mr Edward Southwell, dated Dublin, 3d March 1704-5: "We drink his Royal Highness s health every day; we extol his great and noble defence of Verrue, and wish him succours due to such zeal for the common cause. As to your friend, Monsieur St. Hippolyte, you may let him know that all his clearings of his pension are paid to Midsummer last, and, for particular favour, the two-thirds thereof for subsistence to the first of last month." His pension now rose to the amount of a colonel's half-pay, £223, 11s. 3d. In 1714, within St. Martin s Lane French Church, in the City of London, he married Mary, daughter of Sir Anthony Molenier, and one son, Louis Charles (born 1719), and a daughter, Elizabeth, were born to him. He became a Brigadier 22d April 1727, Major-General 13th Nov. 1735, and Lieutenant-General 2d July 1739. In 1744 he wrote a letter on behalf of the King to the City of London French Church, desiring to ascertain "the number of French Protestants willing to take up arms in case His Majesty required their services at this conjuncture." I have found the minute of the General Assembly of the French Churches of London.* The Assembly met on the 7th March 1844, Rev. J. J. Majendie being in the moderator’s chair. The Baron de Saint Hippolite’s letter was read and engrossed in the minutes.

*Burn's MSS.

A committee was appointed to ascertain the number of volunteers that the French refugees could muster for military service, and to collect their names. The committee-men were Monsieur Dalbiac, Captain de Merargues, and Mr Pravan (formerly a captain of militia), for the City and Spitalfields; and Messrs de St. Maurice, De Foissac, and Soulegre, for Westminster. On the 13th of April, they reported that more than 800 names had been received in Spitalfields, and about the same number for Westminster; the latter list including a number of officers and housekeepers. An autograph note, preserved in the British Museum, shows that the Baron had submitted to a literary friend for revision his Memorial to the French Churches. The note is addressed "A Monsieur, Monsieur Des Maizeaux a Marie-la-Bonne." "Monsieur, Je vous remercie de la bonté que vous avez eu de corriger le memoire que je vous avois donné. Agréez, Monsieur, que je vous prie de boire à ma santé avec la demy Guinée ei-incluse, étant avec une parfaite estime, Monsieur, Votre très humble et très obeissant serviteur,

"LE B. DE SAINTIPOLITE.

"Albemarle Street, le 23 Janvier 1743-4."

The Baron was promoted to the rank of General of Foot on the 9th of March, in the last year of his life. He died 9th June 1761, "at his house in Surrey," aged 93, and was buried in the Wandsworth Cemetery, which is still called "the French burial ground." In his Will, he left "the house in Albemarle Street" to his widow; £100 to the French Hospital, of which he had been a director from its establishment in 1718; he directed that the allowance which he had regularly given to his youngest brother, Aimard Montolieu, residing at Berlin, should be continued [this brother's name is mentioned by Moreri, who styles him "Aymard de Montolieu, Conseiller de Cour et d'Ambassade de S. M. Prussienne."] The Baron also left £1500 to his only daughter, Elizabeth, wife of "the Reverend and Honourable" Gideon Murray, D.D., Prebendary of Durham (third son of Alexander, 4th Lord Elibank), to whom she had been married in 1746. In 1778 Prebendary Murray died, leaving two sons, Alexander and David; the former had married, 20th April 1776, his first cousin, Mary Clara Montolieu, daughter of Colonel Louis Charles Montolieu.

The Baron’s son, Louis Charles, entered the army. By his marriage, he allied himself with the family of Leheup, of which four members appear in the journals as public servants, named Isaac, Michael, Matthew, and Peter; of these, Isaac twice represented boroughs in Cornwall in Parliament, and was Minister-Plenipotentiary to the Diet of Ratisbon in 1726. On the 26th June 1750, Captain Montolieu, only son of Lieut-General Baron St. Hippolite, married a daughter of Peter Leheup, Esq. of St. James’s Place (London). He died on the 13th February 1776, when he was styled Colonel Louis Charles Montolieu of the Horse Guards; he was in his 57th year. He left several daughters. Mary Clara (already named), wife of Alexander Murray, who in 1785 succeeded to the Peerage as the 7th Lord Elibank; she died on the 19th January 1802, leaving three sons and two daughters. The eldest son, Alexander, 8th Lord Elibank (born 1780, died 1830), had six sons and seven daughters; the third son being the Hon. Thomas Montolieu Murray (born 1811, died 1852), and the eldest son, Alexander Oliphant Murray, the present Lord Elibank, whose heir-apparent is the Hon. Montolieu Fox Murray, Master of Elibank. The two latter represent both the son and daughter of the old Baron de Saint Hippolite; the daughter being further represented by the branch of the family founded by her younger son, David Murray, Esq. (died 1794), father of the Rev. David Murray, Rector of Brampton-Brian, who married in 1828 Frances, daughter of John Portal, Esq. of Freefolk.

Colonel Montolieu had other daughters. On 16th Dec. 1780, Ann, his third daughter, was married to Sir James Bland Surges, Bart.; she died on 25th Oct. 1810; her eldest son was Sir Charles Montolieu Lamb, Bart., (born 1785, died 1860), who, by his marriage with the Dowager Lady Montgomerie, became step-father to the 13th Earl of Eglinton: hence Montolieu was introduced among the Christian names of the Earl’s descendants. On 27th May 1783, another daughter of Colonel Montolieu was married to Wriothesley Digby, Esq. (born 1749, died 1827), son of the Hon. Wriothesley Digby, LL.D., and grandson of William, 5th Lord Digby.

In 1826 another daughter, Julia (being the widow of Captain William Wilbraham, R.N.), was married to Lieut.-General Sir Henry Edward Bouverie, G.C.B., Governor of Malta (born 1783, died 1852); she had a daughter, Henrietta, wife of Hugh Montolieu Hammersley, and a son, Captain Henry Montolieu Bouverie of the Coldstream Guards, who was killed at the battle of Inkermann.

The brother of the old Baron, Louis Montolieu, being a refugee in Brandenburg, is memorialised in the seventh and ninth volumes of Erman and Reclam. In 1693 he was a Captain in the regiment of the Marquis de Varennes. He also was created a Baron in 1706, and became General de Bataille in the kingdom of Sicily; he became Major-General in Prussia, and received pensions from Prussia, Sardinia, and Great Britain; he died in Berlin; his eldest daughter was married to Lieut.-Colonel Beville (father of Lieut.-General Beville); the second daughter was married to Lieut.-General de Foreade; his eldest son, after spending his active life in Wurtemberg, retired to Lausanne. This son is mentioned in the diary of James Hutton, in connection with the visit of that zealous Christian layman to Lausanne in 1756; he is styled "Baron de Montaulieu, of the House of St. Hippolyte, in France, who speaks English, and has a pension and ordre from Wurtemberg, and also a pension from Prussia, and is beau-frère of the Prussian General Forcade." At that time France was supplied with Protestant pastors by the "Languedoc Theological Seminary," established at Lausanne. Hutton was there on a visit to urge the Professors to promote evangelic doctrines. The substance of his representation to them was, that the French Reformed Church was a martyr church, whose members had suffered the flames, the gallows, the sword, the dagger, the hatchet, the rack, precipitation from rocks, and drowning, &c., for forty years before they took up arms; and on this account he honoured her, but felt anxious that she should not permit herself to be led aside, by merely moral sermons, from the profitable and thankful contemplation of the sufferings of Christ for sinners.'

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